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Migration and Feminization of Migration

Migration and Feminization of Migration

Abstract

It is a well-known the fact that migration exists every time in the world. The increase in migration from undeveloped or underdeveloped countries to other countries results in countries taking measures for this with various governance techniques. This article was written to give an overview of the problems caused by migration, which are occurring within the country as migration increases. Generally, in this article explanations were made in the context of push-pull factor. In addition, various views have been put forward on the impact of migration, which I have encountered in the literature. This difference of opinion is generally based on two approaches; simply, these approaches are about whether migration cause change structure of society within the country or not. This approach shows us that no consensus has been reached on this issue.

Key Words: Migration, immigrants, push-pull factor, feminism, feminization of migration

  

Introduction

It is a well known the fact that migration has become global issue in all over the world. The issue of immigration is one of the major issues that states have always tried to keep in check. Migration continues to increase from past to present. With increased migration, states have begun to take further measures to protect border security, because with the increasing migration rate, terrorist activities and drug trafficking are also increasing. That’s why states need to secure their borders especially for the migration and emigrants. The first stage in this paper is introduction, second; literature, third; causes of migration, fourth; how it can be transformed into a managable issue, fifth; the new term of femminization of migration, finally; conclusion part which consists of problems and problem resolution.

In this part, it is important to emphasize that the terms migrant and asylum-seeker are very much confused with each other, for which it would be good to have an explanation. It is the name given to people who go from a country to another country because the standards expected by migrants cannot be met in that country. The term asylum-seeker; has been subject to leaving his/her country due to difficult conditions in the country of which  he/she is a citizen. The difference between migrant and asylum-seeker is not understood; the terms asylum-seeker and refugee are also confused. The general difference between these two terms is that the lack of legal recognition of people seeking protection calls the person a refugee.

 

1. Literature

First of all, it is possible to divide migration into two as compulsory and voluntary migration under a broad umbrella. Then migration is again divided into two as internal and external migration under a broad umbrella. In the compulsory migration, people are exposed to migrate because of the bad conditions such as wars, boundary changes, and infectious diseases. In the voluntary migration, people choose better conditions for themselves such as educational opportunities and social welfare. When we look at internal migration, it occurs within a state; on the other hand, external migration occurs between the states. Since with the increase in external migration, migration is being positioned as a global issue. States make policies for this in themselves to stop migrations occurring within the country. However, when it comes to external migration, all states must demonstrate good governance because it is harder to achieve the same effectiveness to reduce external migration. The country can do much faster to increase infrastructural opportunities, material opportunities and social opportunities in cities where migration takes place in order to reduce migration within itself.

In line with immigration described in the literature as push-pull factor[1]; push factors force people to move from one country to another one. Pull factors boost people to move. In addition these factor become attractive for the people who think the emigration. The most widely used method in explaining the causes of migration is shaped by this factor and it still retains its influence today. In the literature, there is no consensus about migration’s effectiveness. One example might clarify this concept. Migration does not change structures and institutions in developed society; on the other hand, migration provides with transformation of structures and institutions. [2]

When we look at net migration rate statistics, we can clearly see that migration is getting higher. With this increase, problems such as unemployment rate (as shown in the second table) also arise.

YearNumber of MigrantsMigrants as a % of World’s Population
197084.460.1252.3%
1980101.983.1492.3%
1990152.563.2122.9%
2000172.703.3092.8%
2010221.714.2433.2%
2015243.700.2463.3%

Table:1 International Migrants Numbers[3]

Table:2 Effect on Emigration on Unemployment Rate[4]

 

2. Causes of Migration

There were different methods that people have tried since immemorial times to lead a more comfortable life. However, in all of these methods we see migration easily. For example, people evolved from hanter-gatherer to agricultural society. They have always sought settlements for better conditions. When we look at the causes of migration, it is possible to explain this by push-pull factor. As I mentioned in the literature part, if the citizen lacks of social welfare and educational opportunities; even if they expose to barrier in terms of religion or politics, people think migration due to the living standarts of the country. Some examples clarify this concept. In Iran, people move especially because of the political and religious oppression. In Afghanistan, people move especially because of low income. These kinds of conditions push citizens to emigrate. As cited in the examples and as previously mentioned, people prefer to migrate to states that will raise their living standars. In this context, the USA was the country that received the most migration among the states because USA has better living standarts in terms of education and social welfare. [5] These kinds of opportunities pull citizen to migrate to this country. That means that while migratory countries are often underdeveloped or underdeveloped countries, in countries receiving migration, this is the opposite.

Nowadays, the most current theory that explains the causes of migration is neoclassical theory. Because according to Todaro and Smithe say that high salaries and opportunities always encourage migration[6] migration occurs in the face of benefits and costs based on economic considerations. Another and important approach is that once living standards are equalised, the wave of migration will also end, as opportunities and costs will be equalised for all countries.[7] It is important to emphasize that with the Global Compact for Migration under UN, states try to reduce the causes of migration elements.[8]

 

3. How This Issue Can Be Managed?

This issue can be managed in two ways.

 

3.1. Migration Governance and Integration

Migration management is important for all countries. The integration of migrants into society can actually be beneficial for the country as well. It is important to be able to put forward the governance of the migration phenomenon in a disciplined way. Germany, for example, is one of the states that practices immigration governance very well. If we look at the past, Germany, which lost both World Wars, is one of the countries that has a good economy in the world now with the economic contribution of immigrants to the country. Their departments and ministries, which work in a highly coordinated way with each other, also prove that they maintain this governance well. This example is also the biggest indication of that migration is nothing to fear.

 

3.2. Migration Integration

Structurally it provides a particular social transformation. Integration is necessary to avoid from possible cultural conflicts arising from migration. The conditions brought about by the century are that migration is now inevitable on the global level. Countries have no capacity to prevent migration. Countries should take the path of preventing irregular and illegal migration under the umbrella of migration.

 

4. The New Term in the Literature: Feminization of Migration

The term feminization of migration, which has gained a place in the literature with the increasing migration of women in recent years, is a new field in the migration studies and also feminist studies. ILO’s migrant workers statistical data show us that women worker has earn higher income compare to men.[9] In addition to this sentence, UN DESA Report clarifies women role in migration studies. In the literature, Abdurahham Yılmaz describes Piper’s description in this way:

The first, is that the proportion of female immigrants in developed countries is greater. The second, is the increase in the overall number of female immigrants.  Third, it is about women taking part in all varieties of migration. Fourth, one reason why men are more involved in migration is that the difficulties in finding full-time jobs in their countries lead women to seek work in other geographies. Fifth and the latest trend is that in target countries, jobs that are “identified with women “, such as housecleaning, babysitting increase in demand. [10]

Female

Table:3 Female Migrants As A Percentage Of The International Migrant Stock[11]

 

Conclusion

All states in the world try to prevent migration and problems which are causes of migration. Some try to prevent immigration from other country, which is the most necessary solution.  The others come up with different policies to prevent immigration within the country. Rising migration rates along with globalisation have made it necessary to ensure good governance among states. As a result, states, international organizations, the media, and even individuals seek to strengthen inter-state governance by trying to produce solutions for this issue. States must improve the nation’s well-being and take a variety of measures to reduce the number of migrations. Because, as we have seen in statistical data, the rising unemployment rate in direct proportion with the increased migration causes migration again. The only solution is to improve the education, health, Housing, and social rights of the citizens of the state. Otherwise, immigration will be inevitable when people assume another country will offer them better living standards. I would like to point out that people do not want to emigrate from developed countries that have high living standards. This ultimately leads us to the conclusion that other countries have to rise above their own capacities. This is a matter that needs to be considered and studied in the long term.


Footnotes

  1. Tim, Mazzarol (, Geoffrey, N. Soutar). Push-pull factors influencing international student destination choice. International Journal of Educational Management, 16., 2., pp. 82-90, (2002). 
  2. Stephen Castles. Understanding global migration: A social transformation perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 36:10, pp. 1565-1586, (2010).
  3. This table is made according to UN DESA Revision of International Migrant Stock.
  4. This table is a direct quote from the article of Škuflić (, Valentina Vučković)’s article. For detailed information look Lorena Škuflić (, Valentina, Vučković). The effect of emigration on unemployment rates: The case of EU emigrant countries. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 31., 1., pp. 1826-1836, (2018).
  5. World Economic Forum, ‘‘Which countries have the most immigrants?’’, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/03/which-countries-have-the-most-immigrants-51048ff1f9/  (Accessed: 24.11.2019).
  6. Michael P. Todaro (, Stephen C, Smith).  Economic development. 11th Edition, Pearson, p. 342, (2012).
  7. Gökhan Kartal (, Serdar Öztürk). Politik istikrarsızlık, uluslararası göç hareketleri ve ekonomik etkileri: Türkiye ve güney komşuları (İran, Irak ve Suriye) üzerine bir inceleme, pp. 180-199, (2018).
  8. United Nations, ‘‘Refugees and migrants’’ , https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/migration-compact (Accessed: 20.11.2019).
  9. International Labor Organization Report, Global estimates on international migrant workers: Results and methodology, 2nd Edition, p. 12, (2017).
  10. Abdurrahman, Yılmaz. Göç ve kadın: “Göçün feminizasyonu” ve kadın göçmenlerin durumu. CBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 17., 1.,  pp. 383-400, (2019).
  11. This table was done acording to UN DESA Report. For detailed information; UN DESA , Migration Data, https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.asp (Accessed:25.11.2019)

 

Bibliography

  1. Abdurrahman Yılmaz. Göç ve kadın: “Göçün feminizasyonu” ve kadın göçmenlerin durumu. CBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 17., 1.,  pp. 383.400, (2019).
  2. Gökhan Kartal (, Serdar Öztürk). Politik istikrarsızlık, uluslararası göç hareketleri ve ekonomik etkileri: Türkiye ve güney komşuları (İran, Irak ve Suriye) üzerine bir inceleme, pp. 180-199, (2018).
  3. Hidayet Sıddıkoğlu. Refugee and asylum seeking in modern Japan: Analysis of Japan’s humanitarian commitments and xenophobic problems. The Journal of Migration Studies. 3., 2., pp. 40-66, (2017).
  4. International Labor Organization Report, Global estimates on international migrant workers results and methodology, 2nd edition, (2017).
  5. Joshua S. Golstein (, Jon C. Pevehouse). International Relations. 7th Edition, Pearson Publication. (2006).
  6. Lorena Škuflić (, Valentina Vučković). The effect of emigration on unemployment rates: The Ccase of EU emigrant countries. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 31., 1., pp. 1826-1836, (2018).
  7. Michael P. Todaro (, Stephen C. Smith). Economic development. 11th Edition, Pearson, (2012).
  8. Sputnik, ‘‘Türkiye göç konusunda ilk defa entegrasyon sorunuyla karşı karşıya’’, https://tr.sputniknews.com/ceyda_karan_eksen/201812111036602940-turkiye-goc-konusunda-ilk-defa-entegrasyon-sorunuyla-karsi-karsiya/ (Accessed: 25.11.2019).
  9. Stephen Castles. Understanding global migration: A social transformation perspective, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 36(10), pp. 1565-1586, (2010).
  10. Tim Mazzarol (, Geoffrey N. Soutar). Push-Pull Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice. International Journal of Educational Management, 16., 2., pp. 82-90, (2002).
  11. UN DESA, ‘‘Migration data’’, https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.asp (Accessed: 25.11.2019).
  12. United Nations, ‘‘Refugees and migrants’’, https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/migration-compact (Accessed: 20.11.2019).
  13. World Economic Forum, ‘‘Which countries have the most immigrants?’’, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/03/which-countries-have-the-most-immigrants-51048ff1f9/ (Accessed: 24.11.2019).

 

 

 

 

[1] Tim, Mazzarol (, Geoffrey, N. Soutar). Push-pull factors influencing international student destination choice. International Journal of Educational Management, 16., 2., pp. 82-90, (2002). 

[2] Stephen Castles. Understanding global migration: A social transformation perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. 36:10, pp. 1565-1586, (2010).

[3] This table is made according to UN DESA Revision of International Migrant Stock.

[4] This table is a direct quote from the article of Škuflić (, Valentina Vučković)’s article.

For detailed information look Lorena Škuflić (, Valentina, Vučković). The effect of emigration on unemployment rates: The case of EU emigrant countries. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 31., 1., pp. 1826-1836, (2018).

[5] World Economic Forum, ‘‘Which countries have the most immigrants?’’, https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2019/03/which-countries-have-the-most-immigrants-51048ff1f9/  (Accessed: 24.11.2019).

 

[6] Michael P. Todaro (, Stephen C, Smith).  Economic development. 11th Edition, Pearson, p. 342, (2012).

[7] Gökhan Kartal (, Serdar Öztürk). Politik istikrarsızlık, uluslararası göç hareketleri ve ekonomik etkileri: Türkiye ve güney komşuları (İran, Irak ve Suriye) üzerine bir inceleme, pp. 180-199, (2018).

[8] United Nations, ‘‘Refugees and migrants’’ , https://refugeesmigrants.un.org/migration-compact (Accessed: 20.11.2019).

[9] International Labor Organization Report, Global estimates on international migrant workers: Results and methodology, 2nd Edition, p. 12, (2017).

[10] Abdurrahman, Yılmaz. Göç ve kadın: “Göçün feminizasyonu” ve kadın göçmenlerin durumu. CBÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 17., 1.,  pp. 383-400, (2019).

[11] This table was done acording to UN DESA Report. For detailed information; UN DESA , Migration Data, https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.asp (Accessed:25.11.2019)