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Effects And Results Of Measures Taken On Preventing Violence Against Women

Abstract

In this study, it is aimed to examine the measures and decisions taken to be a deterrent in the context of preventing violence against women, which can be described as outdated in the world and in our country. Physical, psychological (emotional), sexual and economic violence against women is encountered in every segment of society, so a general approach to the issues is taken into consideration while making evaluations. Again, this study supports the belief that violence against women is a crime against humanity and envisages taking measures to prevent violence against women as a legal guarantee.

Identifying the issues that legitimize violence against women and how they affect gender equality are also included. In this context, the Istanbul Convention, which is described as a solution to the problems that trigger violence against women, is discussed. Again, among the measures against violence against women, the Law on the Protection of the Family and the Prevention of Violence Against Women, known as Law No. 6284 in our country, is also included.

While using the data analysis method in the study, determinations are made by including the ratios of women and men to Turkey’s population at the point of evaluation on domestic violence studies against women in Turkey. In the light of all these data and analyzes, recommendations on what should be done against violence against women, the role of institutions in the fight against violence against women, the works and projects of the TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services, which will set a precedent, as well as women’s counseling centers and cooperating institutions. is mentioned.

Keywords: Women, Violence, Murder, Femicide, Istanbul Convention.

1. Analysis of Measures and Decisions Taken to Prevent Violence Against Women

1.1. Istanbul Convention

“Violence against women, in the world and in our country, from urban to rural; educated – uneducated; rich – poor; young – old; It is a common problem faced by the vast majority of women, regardless of the difference between housewives and working women. Violence against women is a human rights violation.”

Violence against women is seen in every segment of society, as it is read above, which is quoted directly from Nazan Moroğlu. In order to prevent violence, the manifestation of gender equality in all areas of life, the control of the media sector that legitimizes violence against women, legal equality, and the harmony of social and cultural structure with equality are too great to be denied. In order to ensure equality in the patriarchal social structure, first of all, legal guarantee is important. While the annulment of the Istanbul Convention, which is one of the most important files that can be given as an example of legal guarantee, is on the agenda, it is necessary to convey how essential this agreement is for women, gender equality and preventing violence.

In this part of the article, the Istanbul Convention, which entered into force on 1 August 2014 and was ratified by 20 member states of the Council of Europe, which aims to end violence against women with an egalitarian approach, will be discussed. When it comes to the abolition of the Istanbul Convention, which is one of the most important steps taken to prevent violence, which has become more visible in Turkey recently, the main purpose of this article is to explain how great the nature of this contract, which is one of the most important acquired rights, is in question.

Before examining the Istanbul Convention article by article, it is necessary to talk about the elements that make this agreement different and important. First of all, the Istanbul Convention is the first convention in international law that has the power to impose sanctions on violence against women and domestic violence. Since it was opened for signature in Istanbul, its name is referred to as the Istanbul Convention. Steps have been taken to establish an independent audit mechanism. The following statement, which is considered appropriate to be quoted directly from Nazan Moroğlu, proves the nature of the contract.

“It was emphasized that the Convention was drafted with the aim of creating a Europe where violence against women and domestic violence was ended. In the Convention, prevention, protection, prosecution and victim support mechanisms policies are included in order to create a comprehensive legal framework for combating violence against women. The Convention, which is the first internationally binding legal document on this subject, has been opened for signature and approval by countries other than the members of the Council of Europe. The Convention covers the protection of all women from violence, regardless of their marital status, and does not foresee any discrimination, including sexual identity and sexual orientation, in taking measures to protect the rights of victims.”

Istanbul Convention (Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence), “Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence, (shortly Istanbul Convention), opened for signature on 11 May 2011 in Istanbul. It entered into force in 1 August 2014”

In this part of the article, the titles of the articles of the Istanbul Convention, which consists of 12 sections, 81 articles and additional articles, will be given.

Part 1: Purposes, Definitions, Equality and Non-discrimination, General Obligations

While stating the purpose of the convention, the articles of eliminating all kinds of violence against women, prosecuting domestic violence and ensuring equality through the empowerment of women are examined in detail. In the definitions section, the concepts in the contract are discussed and explained.

While explaining violence against women, a definition is made that includes all kinds of physical, sexual, psychological and economic violence acts without making any distinction between private and public spaces. After defining gender-based violence as violence perpetrated by women because of being a woman, the definitions section is concluded by stating that all girls under the age of 18 are also included in the definition of woman.

In the section of Fundamental Rights, equality and non-discrimination, the provisions of this agreement include gender, gender, language, religion, race, national and social origin, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, health status, disability, marital status, immigrant status, etc. it is stated that the situation of implementation by the parties without discrimination is guaranteed.

State Obligations and the responsibility to do due diligence gives the state the necessary responsibility in spreading equality in the articles of Gender Responsive Policies.

Section 2: Holistic Policies and Data Collection

In the Comprehensive and Coordinated Policies article, it is mentioned that state institutions, national, regional and local governments, organizations work together, act and take necessary measures.

In the second part of the contract, which also includes Financial Resources, Non-Governmental Organizations and Civil Society, Coordination Unit, Data Collection and Research, topics such as the reasons for violence and the results of the survey planned to provide public information are opened.

Part 3: Prevention

In the section of General Obligations, the parties take the necessary measures to eliminate the customs and traditions applied because women are seen as an inferior sex, and ensure that reasons such as ‘honor’, customs and religion do not constitute an excuse for violence in any way.

Prevention mechanisms are also explained in detail in the articles on Raising Awareness, Education, Training of Experts, Preventive Intervention and Treatment Programs, Participation of the Private Sector and the Media.

Section 4: Protection and Support

General Obligations, Information, General Support Services, Support in individual/collective complaints, Expert Support Service, Shelters, Telephone Helplines, Support for Victims of Sexual Violence, Protection and Support for Child Witnesses, Notification, Notification by Experts At what points they will be effective is determined.

Chapter 5: Substantive Law

Legal Litigation and Remedies, Compensation, Custody, Visiting Rights and Security, Legal Consequences of Forced Marriages, Psychological Violence, Persistent Pursuit, Physical Violence, Sexual Violence including Rape, Forced Marriage, Female Circumcision, Forced Abortion and Forced Sterilization, Sexual Harassment , Aiding or Abetting or Interference, Inadmissible grounds, including offenses committed in the name of so-called “honour”, Enforcement of Criminal Offenses, Jurisdiction, Sanctions and measures, Aggravating Reasons, Provisions by Other Party, Prohibition of Mandatory Alternative Dispute Resolution Procedures or Provisions.

Section 6: Investigation, Prosecution, Procedural Law and Preventive Actions

General Obligations, Emergency Response, Prevention and Protection, Risk Assessment and Risk Management, Emergency Prevention Units, Restriction and Protection Orders, Investigation and Evidence, Unilateral and Ex-officio Trials, Protective Measures, Legal Aid, Limitation Rule.

Chapter 7: Immigration and Asylum

Residence Status, Gender Based Asylum Applications, Non-Return.

Chapter 8: International Cooperation

General Principles, Measures for Persons at Risk, Information, Data Protection.

Chapter 9: Monitoring Mechanism

Expert Group on Action against Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, Committee of the Parties, Procedure, General Recommendations, Parliamentary Participation in Monitoring

Section 10: Relationship with Other International Documents

Relationship with Other International Documents

Section 11: Changes to the Agreement

Changes

Chapter 12: Final Provisions

Validity of the Agreement, Dispute Resolution, Signature and Entry into Force, Accession to the Agreement, Territorial Practice, Reservations Validity and Review of Reservations, Termination, Notification.

1.2. Law No. 6284

There is a law numbered 6284 in force where preventive measures and decisions are taken. In the “Implementation Regulation on the Law No. 18 on the Protection of the Family and the Prevention of Violence Against Women” published in the Official Gazette No. 2013 on January 28532 6284 the protection of women, children, family members and persons who are victims of unilateral stalking, who are victims of violence or are at risk of violence, and Prevention of violence against persons, measures to prevent violence against perpetrators or those who are likely to commit violence, and procedures and principles regarding the taking and implementation of these measures. This regulation has been prepared in accordance with the 8.3.2014nd article of the “Law on the Protection of the Family and the Prevention of Violence Against Women” dated 6284 and numbered 22. This regulation; It has been prepared in order to protect women, children and families from people who have committed or tended to commit crimes against women, children and families.

The fourth article of the second part of the regulation includes the principles of notification and complaint. The person who is exposed to violence or who is at risk of being exposed to violence can make a complaint by writing a petition to the complaint authorities. The authority or authority to which the petition is given is obliged to fully fulfil its duties within the scope of the law. Complaints made to the Directorate or ŞÖNİM are reported by them to the law enforcement, the local authority, the Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office or the judge, as deemed necessary. Verbal complaints are recorded and added to the file. Although the complaints or denunciations are not a case of being exposed to violence, they require the necessary actions to be taken within the scope of the law. The person who is exposed to violence or who is in danger of violence should be protected by law and complaints and notices should be processed. It is necessary to initiate the legal process by going to or calling the nearest authority or authorities, verbally or in writing, using evidence and witnesses, if any.

In the third part of the regulation, there are injunction decisions. When the legal process starts as a result of a complaint or notice, protective measures are taken by the local authority. Precautionary decisions vary according to the situation; Appropriate accommodation is provided to women and even their children, temporary financial assistance is provided, guidance-counselling services are provided, and a decision is made to put them under temporary protection. Decisions are made for education, employment and housing, depending on the age of the person’s children. Threats of violence, humiliation and even insulting words can cause protective measures to be taken. Protective measures can be taken on the belongings of people who are exposed to violence or may be exposed to violence, as well as individuals.

The fourth section of the regulation covers the making and execution of injunction decisions. The injunction decision, in line with the request of the person concerned; It is given upon the application of the directorate, ŞÖNİM or law enforcement officers or the Public Prosecutor. The injunction is given for a maximum of 6 months for the first time. In line with the request of law enforcement officers, civil authorities, ŞÖNİM or the protected person, changes are made in the protection process or in the form depending on the situation. There is no need for exposure to violence or documents proving violence in order to take protective measures. A person who is or will be violent is sentenced to imprisonment when he violates the protective measures. There can be absolutely no mediation or reconciliation between the perpetrator and the victim. Being exposed to violence within the scope of preventive measures; The person’s residence is visited at least once a week, communication is established with relatives, including second degree, information is obtained from neighbors, information is obtained from the headman, and research is carried out around the residence. As a result of the detection of any contradiction against the preventive measures, a report is kept and reported to the Office of the Chief Public Prosecutor. The protected person, on the other hand, has to notify the law enforcement authorities if he/she will go to a place other than the protected area.

In the fifth part of the regulation, financial provisions, alimony, fees, tax exemptions and health expenses decisions are included. Payments for temporary financial aid are notified to the perpetrator. If he does not pay, his debt is followed and allocated by the tax office. In the event that the protected person makes a false statement, the amount allocated from the perpetrator is returned to the perpetrator. If alimony is decided according to the provisions of the law, it is notified to the executive directorate. In case the perpetrator has a connection with SGK, his salary, salary and wages are collected by the executive directorate. The health expenses of the protected person are covered by the general health insurance. If the protected person has requested that his identity be hidden, he becomes the person who is prioritized and immediately processed in transactions such as waiting in line, making an appointment, receiving treatment, while benefiting from health services. In cases where the protected person needs to be cured and treated, the treatment of the services within the scope of general health insurance is covered by the Ministry. No fee may be charged for the proceedings for the execution and execution of the applications and the decisions rendered within the scope of the law, under litigation expenses, fees, postal expenses and the like. The Ministry may participate in the case as it deems necessary.

The provisions of this regulation are carried out by the Ministry of Family and Social Policies.

The purpose of the Law No. 6284 on the Protection of the Family and the Prevention of Violence Against Women is to protect women, children, family members and victims of unilateral stalking against violence, and some measures, such as expulsion from home, are implemented for the perpetrator of violence. From the protection of this law; Spouses and children who are exposed to domestic violence, other family members (relatives) living under the same roof, victims of unilateral stalking, family members who have been given a separation decision by the court or who have the legal right to live separately or who live separately despite being married can benefit.

The person who has been subjected to violence, other people (a person living in the same house, sibling, child, relative or anyone who sees, hears, witnesses’ violence, for example, neighbor, teacher, doctor, etc.) for complaints and denunciations Governorate-District Governorate, Police Station can apply to the Gendarmerie Station, the Chief Public Prosecutor’s Office or the Family Court Judge. If a request is made in order to benefit from legal aid, no expense is charged for the procedures carried out within the scope of the Law No. 6284 on the Protection of the Family and the Prevention of Violence Against Women.

What are the precautionary decisions regarding the victims of violence within the scope of the law?

Judge; may decide to change the place of work of the protected person, or to determine a separate settlement from the joint settlement if the protected person is married. If there is a life-threatening situation, the victim of violence may be placed under temporary protection. The Governor and District Governor can provide crèches for their children to support the protected person’s participation in working life. In the presence of the conditions in the Turkish Civil Code and upon request, a family residence annotation can be added to the land registry. Judge; may order the change of identity and other relevant information and documents based on the informed consent of the victim of violence. In the event that the victim of violence requests shelter, the local authority or, in cases where delay is inconvenient, the law enforcement officers provide suitable accommodation for the victims of violence and their children. The Governor and District Governor may decide for a temporary period to provide financial assistance to the victims of violence when they deem necessary.

The injunction decisions that can be taken in relation to the perpetrator/probably perpetrator of violence within the scope of the law;

The judge, the person who perpetrates or is likely to commit violence; it may decide to remove it from the common living area and not to approach the residence, school and workplace where the protected persons are located. It may be decided by the judge that the perpetrator of violence should not engage in words and behaviours involving the threat of violence, insult, humiliation or humiliation against the protected person, and not to disturb them by means of communication or other means. The judge may decide to establish a personal relationship with the children, to make the personal relationship accompanied by an accompanying person, to limit or completely abolish the personal relationship. It is ensured that the perpetrator delivers his weapon or similar tools to law enforcement in line with the decision made by the judge. Even if he is performing a public duty where it is mandatory to carry a gun, it may also be decided to hand over the embezzled gun to his institution due to this duty. The local authority or judge may order measures to ensure that the person who commits or is likely to commit violence is examined or treated in a health institution. In addition to the measures listed, an obligation to pay alimony may be brought in favor of the victim.

The duration of the injunction; The injunction can be given for a maximum of six months for the first time. If violence recurs during or after the duration, it is possible to apply for an injunction decision again. As long as the injunction is not complied with, the perpetrator or the person who is likely to commit violence may be sentenced to imprisonment from three days to ten days if he or she violates the precautionary measures. In each repetition of violation of the requirements of the injunction, the duration of the forced imprisonment is from fifteen days to thirty days. The penalty in question cannot be converted into money and cannot be postponed.

2. Statistical Analysis of Violence

Although we think that femicides are increasing more than in the past, from the events and news that we often hear or witness today, statistics also show this.

Table 2.1 Rates of Women Killed in a Year in Different Countries (Per Million) According to the World Health Organization Data

women
Source: https://www.pa.edu.tr/Upload/editor/files/Kadin_Cinayetleri_Rapor.pdf (Access date: 19.09.2019).

When we look at the graph above for 2015, we see that the rate of female murder per one million people in Turkey is 5 per year. The population of Turkey is 82.003.882 [1] We see that 400 women are killed in one year.Source: https://www.pa.edu.tr/Upload/editor/files/Kadin_Cinayetleri_Rapor.pdf (Access date: 19.09.2019).

In 2016, 2017 and 2018 a total of 726 femicide were committed, 206 of which were recorded by the police and 932 by the gendarmerie. [2]

 

Table 2.2 Number of Femicide Committed in Turkey in 2016, 2017 and 2018 (Gendarmerie Responsibility Area + Police Responsibility Area)

2016 301
2017 350
2018 281

Source: https://www.pa.edu.tr/Upload/editor/files/Kadin_Cinayetleri_Rapor.pdf (Access date: 19.09.2019).

 

Table 2.3 Femicide Data Between 2010-2018

women
Source: Gülsüm Kav, 03 January 2019 https://twitter.com/GulsumKav/status/1080773064701431809?s=08 (Access date: 15.09.2019).

In the table above, we see that femicides have increased tremendously between 2010-2018 and 2018. Considering that these statistics are only what is reflected in the press, we can say that there may be many women we do not know or hear about where they are, who they are, why they were killed. When we look at Table 2.2 the murders of women occurred in the area of responsibility of the police and gendarmerie; According to the data in Table 2.3 it is seen that it is quite below. These data show us that there may be many more unreported murders and cases of violence.

 

Table 2.4 Why were women killed on what excuses? (August 2019)

women
Source: We Will Stop Femicides Platform, We Will Stop Femicides Platform 2018 Data Report, 01 January 2019, http://kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/veriler/2869/kadin-cinayetlerini-durduracagiz-platformu-2018-veri-raporu (Access date: 15.09.2019).


According to the data of the We Will Stop Femicide Platform, 49 women were killed last August, 3 of which were recorded as economic reasons, 10 due to divorce, wanting to separate or refusal, 29 for an undetermined reason, and 7 as suspicious deaths. The rate of use of these excuses, which are shown as the reason for the murder of women, is shown in the chart below.

 

Table 2.5 Who Killed the Women? (August 2019)

women
Source: We Will Stop Femicides Platform, We Will Stop Femicides Platform 2018 Data Report, 01 January 2019, http://kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/veriler/2869/kadin-cinayetlerini-durduracagiz-platformu-2018-veri-raporu (Access date: 15.09.2019).

Of these 49 women killed in August 2019, 14 were killed by the men they were married to, while the others were killed by their relatives, men they were with, their fathers and sons. While the data for August is like this, the general data on who killed women are as in the graph.

Table 2.6 How Were Women Killed?

women
Source: We Will Stop Femicides Platform, We Will Stop Femicides Platform 2018 Data Report, 01 January 2019, http://kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/veriler/2869/kadin-cinayetlerini-durduracagiz-platformu-2018-veri-raporu (Access date: 15.09.2019).

According to statistics, it is known that women are mostly killed by firearms and many of them are murdered where they should be safe, namely in their homes.

Any behavior that harms the physical or mental integrity of a living thing is violence. People have the power to suppress and regulate situations that may create violence in their own icmal mechanisms. In cases where some people cannot prevent violence and aggression, social rules are expected to limit them. If the expectations are not met in the implementation of the rules, the obstacles in front of the attackers will be removed.

Considering all these, the increase in violence in general can be explained by the change in these perceptions and expectations, the loss of belief in laws and the change in the political climate. Among the sociological reasons for violence are the inadequacy of communication styles, lack of education, wrongly taught morality, ethics and sense of honor.

Active psychotic states, alcohol and substance use, personality disorders cause an increase in violence. Violence cannot be prevented only by law, measures against the society and the individual must be handled together. Providing education about violence in childhood and adolescence will be an effective method in preventing violence and solving this problem before children grow up.

3. Evaluation of Studies on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey

Violence against women is unfortunately a serious social problem in our lives. In this field, which is done in the literature and scientific studies among different disciplines, women are always subjected to various discriminations on the basis of identities (female identity) in our society. The distinction between men and women actually goes beyond biological differences. The word, which is defined as ‘gender’ in the international arena, is simply related to the roles assigned to men and women by society. In the literature, women have always been exposed to discriminations that are seen as feminine (?) such as babysitting and teaching. This distinction is a socially defined role for women. At all times, every profession and behaviour is divided by our society into masculine and feminine. For example; Areas such as decision-making mechanisms, politics, mathematics and security take shape as areas where masculinity is defined, and professions and disciplines defined as feminine, on the contrary; babysitting, teaching, Turkish.

Ensuring gender equality, which is one of the most important problems of our society, is one of the problems that are still discussed in the international arena. All countries in the world organize various struggles and campaigns to achieve this equality. In particular, the reports and campaigns organized by the United Nations to put an end to discrimination on the basis of the two sexes are the best organizations that can be given as an example to reduce the distance between these inequalities. According to the report published by Global GenderReport, Turkey ranks 130th in terms of ensuring gender equality. [3]

All kinds of violence that women have been exposed to due to the social roles assigned to women from the past to the present, and negative discrimination based on the identity of women continue with their increasing numbers in the 21st century. In this context, the aim is to fully identify violence against women and to offer solutions for the elimination of this violence.

With the entry of the Istanbul Convention (2011) into force more serious steps have been taken towards reducing violence against women and ensuring equality between men and women. However, according to the research and recorded databases, violence; has not yet ended.

Table 3.1 Population of Turkey


Age Group
2018
Total Male Female
Total 81 867 223 41 059 075 40 808 147
0-4 6 544 781 3 357 981 3 186 800
5-9 6 336 787 3 253 192 3 083 595
10-14 6 322 223 3 244 584 3 077 639
15-19 6 402 806 3 288 016 3 114 790
20-24 6 523 846 3 333 076 3 190 769
25-29 6 256 609 3 176 593 3 080 016
30-34 6 319 097 3 197 285 3 121 812
35-39 6 563 350 3 309 834 3 253 516
40-44 5 836 212 2 947 638 2 888 574
45-49 5 302 832 2 665 168 2 637 665
50-54 4 693 555 2 367 229 2 326 325
55-59 4 163 996 2 072 110 2 091 886
60-64 3 437 773 1 687 722 1 750 051
65-69 2 604 978 1 242 584 1 362 395
70-74 1 849 910  831 911 1 017 999
75-79 1 257 817  537 620  720 197
80-84  790 992  317 440  473 552
85-89  484 644  181 949  302 695
90-94  146 412  41 254  105 158
95-99  23 611  5 249  18 362
100+  4 990   638  4 352

Source: TurkStat, Population Projections 2013-2075, February 14 2013, http://tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=15844 (Access date: 20.09.2019).

According to the current data in 2018 the population of Turkey consists of 81 867 223 [4] individuals. Among these individuals, the rate of women constituting the female population is 49,8%. [5] As can be understood from this information, women constitute half of Turkey’s population. In contrast, women, who make up half of the population, have very limited representation compared to men. The low representation power of women in society is also something that triggers this. With the negative depression created by low representation, the socialization of women is extremely difficult in society. The biggest indicator of this in our society is the literacy inequality between men and women. Compared to the male population, women’s education levels are lower. Since women can benefit less from education, which is a basic human right, compared to men, their socialization is less as a result. According to a study conducted in support of this argument, it is the women who are subjected to violence that they most want to benefit from educational opportunities and opportunities. [6]

The women’s movement, which started for the first time in 1987 in Turkey, started with the “Women Against Beating”. [7] According to official records, at least 255 women were killed in Turkey in 2018 These murders took place all over Turkey. 4 out of 255 women murdered are trans women. Well; Women may experience violence and discrimination not only because they are women, but also because they are trans women. The term that explains this, ‘intersectionality’, reveals the ladder of discrimination that women are exposed to in the real environment.

In order to eliminate violence against women in Turkey and to make the legal processes related to it more binding, every individual in our society should be informed more about this issue. As in every country, the law stated in our constitution regarding this issue on the prevention of violence against women, numbered 6284, is not enough to reduce violence against women. Even the principle of constitutional supremacy, registered with the hierarchy of norms, cannot help reduce violence against women.

According to the statistical research, [8] all kinds of violence (physical, sexual, economic, psychological) that women are exposed to are seen in every region of Turkey. In addition to this, it is obvious that the violence experienced by women is also seen in every age range. There is a negative correlation between education level and violence. The variable for which the most significant correlation has been proven statistically is related to the marital status of the woman. Most of the women who have been subjected to violence in Turkey are women who have ended their marriages.

What should be done?

  1. The roles assigned to men and women by society should be rejected, and attention-grabbing advertisements should be made in order to ensure equality between men and women.
  2. According to statistical studies, most of the women exposed to violence primarily apply to their families. [9] More than half of the women who applied to their families say that their families are more indifferent. [10] A more detailed investigation should be initiated on this issue.
  3. Governorate, District Governorate, Security Forces (Police and Gendarmerie), Legal Authorities (Prosecutor’s Office, Court) and Health Institutions should work in a more integrated manner.
  4. The steps to be followed in policy making should be considered extremely well.

 

4. Role of Institutions in Combating Violence Against Women

Gender inequality and violence against women is one of the problems of modern society that should be emphasized. Contrary to popular belief, this problem, which is also common in Western societies, manifests itself in the form of economic inequality, political underrepresentation, cultural oppression and sexual violence, and the fact that men have more social, political and economic resources triggers this problem. [11]

The “Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women” adopted at the UN General Assembly in 1993 and the “Istanbul Convention” (in full name, the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence) opened for signature in 2011 states that there is a gender problem. [12]

Institutions play an important role in combating violence against women. Many institutions such as the TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services, municipalities, non-governmental organizations and bar associations in cities are struggling with violence against women and gender inequality; It produces policies and projects aimed at reducing gender inequality, raising awareness among women or rehabilitating women who have been subjected to violence. Established counselling centres and shelters provide legal, psychological, etc. to women exposed to violence. It helps in matters and provides accommodation services by taking security measures. However, the role of institutions in the fight against violence against women in our country has not reached the desired level. For instance, although there is an obligation to be present in all municipalities with a population of more than one hundred thousand according to the Law on Municipalities No. 5393 only five of the thirty-six municipalities in Istanbul have women’s shelters and some municipalities are not even aware of this requirement. [13]

 

4.1. Studies and Projects of TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services

The TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services works to ensure gender equality, strengthen the position of women in society, and eliminate all forms of discrimination against women, under the umbrella of the General Directorate on the Status of Women. [14] Hello 183 Call Centre, established by the Ministry, accepts reports of neglect, abuse and violence, and directs the cases to the relevant authorities. [15]

Provincial directorates affiliated to the Ministry and Violence Prevention and Monitoring Centres (ŞÖNİM) affiliated to these directorates are also institutions that women who have experienced violence or at risk of violence can apply. These institutions support victims in the healing process; provides legal support, financial assistance and guest houses. In addition to these, there are many projects at national and international level carried out by the Ministry with various stakeholders. Projects carried out; It includes issues such as providing support to women during and after the divorce process, ensuring women’s access to economic opportunities, ensuring gender equality in the workplace and raising awareness of the personnel working in the relevant institutions.

4.1.1. Increasing Women’s Access to Economic Opportunities Project (November 2012 – February 2017):

In this project, carried out with the World Bank and the Swedish International Development and Cooperation Agency, it was assumed that increasing the share of women in the economy would benefit the country’s economy and the process of women’s participation in politics. Accordingly, in this project; It is aimed to identify the necessary elements and problems to increase the share of women in the economy, to produce policies to solve the identified problems, to increase women’s employment in better jobs and to increase their access to entrepreneurship opportunities.

4.1.2. Project for Increasing the Efficiency of National Policies in Combating Violence Against Women (2013):

With this project, which is carried out jointly with the British Embassy, it is aimed to raise the awareness of the personnel working in shelters, ŞÖNİMs and provincial directorates. For this purpose, groups of 2 local and 2 international experts trained 240 employees. The trainings included topics such as inter-institutional coordination, introduction to traumatology, and early intervention to trauma. [16]

4.1.3. Trainer Training Project for Personnel Working in the Field of Domestic Violence (2013 – 2014):

With this project, which is carried out jointly with the Ministry of European Union and the British Embassy, it is aimed to develop the perspectives and professional competencies of the personnel working in ŞÖNİMs and provincial directorates. To this end; 106 personnel working in Ankara and Antalya were trained on Law No. 6284 intervention for concussion and trauma, basic counseling skills, methods of coping with stress, and presentation techniques. [17]

4.1.4. Empowering Women Victims of Violence Electronic Tracking and Procurement Project (2010):

In this project, it is aimed to increase the quality of women’s shelters and to protect women who are victims of violence with the help of electronic support systems. For this purpose, successful examples from other countries were examined and at the end of the study, 135 (14+1) vehicles were purchased for women to access services more quickly. [18]

4.1.5. Women’s Guest Houses Project for Combating Violence Against Women/Combating Domestic Violence Project (2014 – 2016):

The aim of this project, which is sponsored by the European Union, is to support the activities carried out for the protection of women’s rights. In project scope, training programs have been organized and various grants have been given to the units and NGOs that support the women subjected to violence in the provinces of; Ankara, Bursa, Antalya, Izmir, Samsun, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Istanbul, Kirsehir, Nevsehir, Duzce, Sakarya, Mersin, Isparta, Adana, Manisa, Denizli, Trabzon, Erzurum, Konya, Afyon, Sanliurfa, Diyarbakir, Van, Kocaeli and Çanakkale. Many public employees such as health workers, judges, prosecutors, editors-in-chief, and personnel of the General Directorate of Security received training within the scope of the project. In addition, the campaign “I Am Here Against Violence Against Women” was organized within the scope of the project.

4.1.6. Law No. 6284 on Protection of Family and Prevention of Violence Against Women (2013 – 2014):

In this project, it was aimed to examine the implementation process of the Law No. 6284 which came into force on 20 March 2012 to eliminate the problems and to reveal the demographic, social, economic and psychological profiles of the victims and perpetrators of violence. [19] Solution suggestions and road maps were developed for the problems identified as a result of the research.

4.1.7. Humanitarian Aid Program to Combat and Respond to Gender-Based Violence (2013):

In this project, carried out with the UN Population Fund, it is aimed to raise awareness of the Syrian refugees who had to come to our country after the Syrian Civil War on gender equality and to raise the awareness of the personnel providing services to the refugees against gender-based violence. Within the scope of the project, trainings were given to the concentration camp personnel, psychologists and social workers in Gaziantep Nizip; Turkish/Arabic brochures were created to be distributed to Syrian refugees and various meetings were held with groups of Syrians.

4.1.8. Humanitarian Aid Program to Combat and Respond to Gender-Based Violence (2012):

In this project, it was aimed to collect data on violence against women, increase data collection capacity, establish a data collection system for examining violence against women, and integrate it into the system of the TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services. [20]

4.1.9. Equality At Work Platform:

The foundation of the platform, which is jointly run by Sabancı Holding and Doğuş Holding and under the auspices of the TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services, was laid at the 2012 World Economic Forum meeting in Istanbul. The aim of this three-year project is to reduce gender inequality in the business world by up to ten percent. To this end; Güler Sabancı and Ferit Şahenk signed the protocol called “Declaration of Equality at Work”. Within the scope of the project, many informative meetings were held, and large audiences were tried to be reached through brochures and videos. At the end of the project, the targeted result was achieved and the gap was closed by 10,9% [21]

4.1.10. Evaluation Project of Family and Divorce Counselling Service (2017):

In the project, which started to evaluate the Family and Divorce Process Counselling service, which has been provided since 2012 and to eliminate the deficiencies, interviews were held with the counselees who received the service and the stakeholders of the counselling service. As a result of the research, it was determined that the majority of the clients were satisfied with the service, their self-confidence improved and their family relations improved.

4.2. Women’s Counselling Centres and Collaborating Institutions

Women’s Counselling Centres are counselling and guidance centres established for women who have experienced violence and are at risk. [22] These centres, opened by provincial directorates, NGOs or municipalities affiliated to the Ministry, provide legal, psychological and social service support to women who have been subjected to violence and discrimination; It tries to raise awareness about violence against women and quickly directs the victims to the relevant institutions if needed. At the same time, these centres accept applications for women’s shelters whose locations are kept secret. The service to be provided in the counselling centres is personal; It is essential to pay attention to the client’s personality, sexual orientation, psychological state, and status.

One of the important functions of Women’s Counselling Centres is to instil self-confidence in women and show that they are not alone. The centres that bring together individuals who have been subjected to violence because they are women, create solidarity among women, and from this solidarity comes strength. Meanwhile, women discover themselves and gain the opportunity to continue their lives as stronger individuals. On top of all these, it can be said that the main purpose of the centres is not to rehabilitate women, but to ensure their emancipation. [23]

Another service provided in Women’s Counselling Centres is legal consultancy. The centres inform women who have experienced violence by volunteer lawyers and through brochures printed by the institution. With this; It works to increase the economic power of women, and supports women who reach the institution so that they can find a job and reach institutions where they can receive financial support. Except those, With the help of scientific research and neighbourhood studies, the dimensions of violence against women are examined, studies are carried out to inform women who are unaware of the institution, and efforts are made to eliminate various prejudices.

Combating violence against women requires the cooperation of institutions and society. For this reason, Women’s Counselling Centres cooperate with many institutions from time to time. Examples of these institutions are ŞÖNİM, TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services and provincial directorates, law enforcement officers, women’s shelters, governorships and district governorships, NGOs, judicial units and bar associations.

Counselling centres can contact law enforcement when necessary. Apart from this, police stations and gendarmes are centres where women who are victims of violence can apply directly. These centres cooperate with the TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services to meet the various needs of the applicant and take preventive and protective measures in cases where immediate measures are required and refer them to the Public Prosecutor’s Office in other cases. [24]

When necessary, the Public Prosecutor’s Office may request a report from the Forensic Medicine Institute, initiate an investigation, file a civil lawsuit against the perpetrator or refer the file to the Family Courts. In addition to this, various responsibilities have been imposed on the civil authorities with the Law No. 6284 With this; protective measures can be taken by the local authority. [25]

4.2.1. Women’s Shelters

Women’s shelters; These are shelters for women who have experienced violence and their children, where they can stay for a certain period of time. [26] These organizations, which are put into service by the TR Ministry of Family, Labor and Social Services, NGOs and municipalities, meet the shelter needs of women who have been subjected to violence, eliminating the need to return to their homes where they have been subjected to violence and enabling them to enter into solidarity with other women who have been subjected to violence. The addresses of the shelters are kept confidential and in this way, the safety of women at risk is tried to be ensured. In the shelter, where the shelter period is six months, this period can be extended when necessary, and financial support and counselling services can be provided to women who leave the shelter when necessary.

According to the 1998 regulation on women’s shelters affiliated to the Social Services and Child Protection Agency; Women who have left their homes or have been abandoned, who have been forced into marriage, who have been abused, who have no one, who have been rejected by their families due to a child born out of wedlock, and who need support because they have just finished their prison sentence, are admitted to the shelter. Women who are addicted to alcohol and drugs, wanted for any crime, who take up prostitution as a profession, who are in need of care, and who have mental health problems, are not admitted to shelters and are referred to the necessary places. [27] Women who are addicted to alcohol and drugs are admitted to the shelter after completing their treatment.

4.2.2. Bar Associations – Women’s Rights Centres

Women’s Rights Centres; Protecting the rights that women gained with the Republic, ensuring gender equality, combating violence against women, working to adapt the unequal provisions of the laws to today’s conditions, providing free counselling training to women who have been subjected to violence, informing the public about legal rights, These are centres established for the purposes of ensuring compliance with international commitments. [28] These centres established by bar associations in cities cooperate with governorships, district governorships, NGOs, ŞÖNİMs and ministries when necessary.

4.2.3. Non-Governmental Organizations

Non-governmental organizations are one of the types of organizations that struggle to ensure gender equality, eliminate violence against women, identify violence and support women who have been subjected to violence.

Non-governmental organizations; can support women who are exposed to violence or at risk by establishing counselling centres and shelters, raise awareness through various projects or media, reach disadvantaged women and hold information meetings with them, provide legal consultancy services to women who are victims of violence, or make national and international decisions against social discrimination. can put pressure on the transmitters.

In our country; Organizations such as Purple Roof, the Foundation for Solidarity with Women (KADAV) and the We Will Stop Femicide Platform are working effectively against gender inequality and discrimination.

4.2.3.1. Purple Roof:

Purple Roof was established in 1990 to ensure women’s solidarity and combat violence. It supports women who have experienced violence through the Women’s Solidarity Centre and shelter; they also try to raise awareness by using their activities to large audiences with brochures, magazines, books, and articles. According to the 2018 activity report of the association, Purple Roof Solidarity Centre conducted 1808 interviews with women aged 0-73 while a total of 44 people benefited from Purple Roof Shelter. [29]

4.2.3.2. Foundation for Solidarity with Women (KADAV):

After the 1999 Marmara Earthquake, it started its activities in order to support women in the earthquake region. KADAV, which supports the people of the region in many issues, including the fight against violence against women, opened various workshops and courses to bring women into the economy and struggled with the gender inequality caused by the earthquake. Today, the organization still fights violence against women, continues its work on women’s employment, supports immigrant women and works to protect the rights of women imprisoned and LGBTQ individuals.

4.2.3.3. We Will Stop Femicide Platform:

The We Will Stop Femicide Platform, which was established to stop femicides and protect women from violence, fights against all kinds of violations of women’s rights, particularly the right to life. [30]

Organization; It provides legal support to women who are exposed to violence, tries to create public opinion against violence against women, raises awareness about the rights of women and tries to put pressure on the correct implementation of Law No. 6284 The platform has five suggestions for the solution of femicides:

→ Condemning violence against women by the President and political party leaders,

→ Effective implementation of Law No. 6284

→ Fulfilling aggravated life sentence proposals for the Penal Code,

→ Establishment of the Ministry of Women,

→ Enactment of the new constitution based on gender and sexual orientation equality.[31]

Conclusion

Since the birth of humanity, war, massacre, torture and many other behaviours and attitudes that harm life, material and spirituality have been experienced and continue to be experienced. If there is only one reason for these cruelties; it is the struggle for supremacy. Unfortunately, this struggle for supremacy has also been carried over to the relationship between men and women, and men; He created unlimited rights on women, such as putting pressure on women, managing, owning, punishing. This created hierarchy is not much different from the understanding of slavery.

Statistics show that violence against women is one of the biggest human rights violations worldwide. In China; girls are aborted or sold. It is estimated that 14.000 women have been killed in Russia since 1999. 5-6 women are killed per week in African countries. Every 15 seconds in the USA, a woman is exposed to physical violence. In Spain and England, 2 women are killed per week. Half of the deaths in Bangladesh are the killing of women. In Turkey, 10 out of 4 women have been exposed to physical violence. There are many women’s deaths and women who have been subjected to violence, which are not recorded.

There has been a steady increase in femicides in the last ten years in our country. 40 percent of the women killed were killed by firearms and 37 percent by unidentified persons. Violence against women takes place every day, everywhere. Femicide is increasing in direct proportion to the increase in divorces. The increase in divorces destroys the concept of family and in children who cannot receive the love and affection of their parents; feelings of love, mercy, compassion are destroyed. Children who do not know love and the concept of family grow up as individuals who use violence in the future.

It is necessary to deal with the causes of violence against women from religious, doctrinal and psychological perspectives. If we look at the religious dimension, especially those who perceive Islam in a different way have interpreted the advice and advice from their own perspective and, on the contrary, established a hierarchy against women. However, in Islam, women are exalted and “Paradise is under the feet of mothers.” advice has been given. If we look at the first Turkish societies and states; After Hakan, the most authoritative person was Hatun and Hakan consulted Hatun in his decisions. When we come to the Republican Era, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk first gave women the right to vote and be elected in the municipal elections on March 20 1930. Women are emotional beings, they can’t make quick decisions, they won’t be able to carry my last name, a man has a boy, etc. This way of understanding and thinking made women put them in the background; The world has been created for men and has created a perception that men rule.

In our country, there are those who are against women’s participation in business life, and they cause both women’s economic weakness and the country’s economic weakness. As we go from west to east, the pressure on women increases and the child bride incident is one of the most common problems in the east. “Women; She is the wife of his house, she has to serve her house, her children, her husband and parents.” concept is widespread. The concept of honour has been shown as a moral rule that exists only for women at every opportunity, and the area of freedom for men has been expanded. They made atrocities such as honour killings and blood feuds as a matter of honour and reputation, and turned them into a tradition.

The sacrifices and struggles made by women behind the front during the National Struggle period paved the way for victory. Women who played a role in the establishment of a state are killed and exposed to various violence today. Associations were established and laws were enacted to prevent femicides and violence. However, no decision has any effect after it is implemented. In particular, the Istanbul Convention should not be terminated, and each article of this convention, which aims to protect women, should be put into effect. Women’s rights should be guaranteed by law, instead of punishing the murderer after the murders of women and adding one more murder to the data. In order to ensure equality, enjoyment of rights, and create a safe and high level of welfare; It is of great importance for our country that first of all, the reforms made in the field of education, and most importantly, the implementation of laws and decisions that protect equality, justice, right and law.

Recommendations

  1. The Istanbul Convention should not be terminated and every article of it should be implemented.
  2. The patriarchal understanding should be destroyed, equality should be ensured by fulfilling the rights and laws.
  3. Throughout his education life; lessons should be taught in a way that teaches morality, honesty, respect and tolerance; Practical training of courses such as courtesy rules and values education should be done.
  4. Women’s rights should be protected by laws, and the enforcement power of penalties should be increased.
  5. Employment area should be created for women in every sector. The distinction between men’s work and women’s work should be abolished.
  6. Women should be encouraged and encouraged to enter the workforce. A woman does not mean a housewife.
  7. Facilitation should be provided for women who have been subjected to violence to reach the competent authorities, and fast and harmonious work should be carried out between institutions.
  8. It should be committed as a disgraceful crime in the record of perpetrators of violence against women. This must also be on the registry as a crime.

Ottoman Empire and Art of Sculpture


References:

“Assessment of Family and Divorce Process Counseling Service”, https://www.ailevecalisma.gov.tr/media/2507/Aile_ve_Bosanma_Sureci_Danismanligi.pdf

Alpago, Ceyda: “Violence Against Women and the Case of Women’s Shelters”, Master Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2006.

BAKIRCI, Kadriye, Istanbul Convention, Ankara (Hacettepe University), 2019, http://www.turkkadinlarbirligi.org/tr/kurumsal/5/%C4%B0stanbul+S%C3%B6zle%C5%9FmesiErsecen, Duygu; Tosun, Zehra: “Women’s Counseling Center Operations Training Handbook”, Women’s Solidarity Foundation, Ankara, 2015.

“About Us: We Will Stop Femicide in 10 Questions Platform”, http://kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/hakkimizda

“Only 36 out of 5 Municipalities in Istanbul Have Shelter”, https://www.haberturk.com/yasam/haber/1417854-istanbulda-36-belediyeden-sadece-5inde-siginma-evi-bulunuyor/5

“Women’s Counseling Center”, https://www.mersin.bel.tr/proje/kadin-danisma-merkezi-5e4uoq

“Completed Projects of the General Directorate on the Status of Women”, https://ailevecalisma.gov.tr/KSGM/PDF/ksgb_tamamlanan_projeler_ekim_2018.pdf

“Foundation for Solidarity with Women (KADAV)”, http://www.siginaksizbirdunya.org/tr/biz-kimiz/kurultay-bilesenleri/37-kadinlarla-dayanisma-vakfi-kadav

“Women’s Rights Center”,  https://www.istanbulbarosu.org.tr/FooterContent.aspx?ID=64&Desc=Kadın-Hakları-Merkezi “Women’s Rights Center: Introduction and Purpose”, https://www.bursabarosu.org.tr/tr/merkezler-kadin-haklari-merkezi-tanitim-ve-amac.html “Purple Roof 2018 Annual Report”, https://www.morcati.org.tr/tr/neler-yapiyoruz/faaliyet-raporlari/496-mor-cati-2018-yili-faaliyet-raporu

MOROĞLU, Nazan, Law No. 6284 on the Prevention of Violence Against Women and the Istanbul Convention, Istanbul (Yeditepe University, 2012,) http://dekaum.deu.edu.tr/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/2012-99-1169.pdf

“What Can I Do”, http://www.evicisiddet.adalet.gov.tr/Ne_Yapabilirim.html

“When Subjected to Violence”, https://ailevecalisma.gov.tr/ksgm/siddete-maruz-kalindiginda

Tastan, Coskun; Yıldız Küçüker, Aslıhan: Femicide in the World and in Turkey: 2016-2017-2018 Data and Analysis, Police Academy Publications, Istanbul. 2019.

TurkStat, Population Projections, 2018-2080, http://tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=15844.

Population of Turkey, https://www.nufusu.com/ 2012-2019.

Footnotes

[1] Population of Turkey, https://www.nufusu.com/, (Access date: 26.09.2019).

[2] Coşkun Taştan, Aslıhan Küçüker Yıldız, Femicide in the World and in Turkey: 2016-2017-2018 Data and Analysis, Police Academy Publications, Istanbul. 2019, p. 2.

[3] World Economic Forum, Global GenderGap Report, https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-gender-gap-report-2018, (Accessed date: 31.08.2019).

[4] TUIK, News Bulletin, http://tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=30707

(Access date: 01.09.2019).

[5] TUIK news bulletin, http://tuik.gov.tr/PreHaberBultenleri.do?id=30707

[6] Ayşe Ediz, Şenol Altan, “A Field Study on Violence Against Women in Turkey”, http://tbbdergisi.barobirlik.org.tr/m2017-2017-1729

[7] Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Turkey, Hacettepe University, http://www.hips.hacettepe.edu.tr/KKSA-TRAnaRaporKitap26Mart.pdf

[8] Research on DomesticViolence in Turkey,HacettepeUniversity Report, p.86, Ankara (2015).

[9] Kamer Foundation, Women’s Rights are Human Rights Project, p. 15.

[10] Ibid., p. 43.

[11] Duygu Erseçen and Zehra Tosun, “Women’s Counseling Center Operations Training Handbook”, Women’s Solidarity Foundation, Ankara, 2015, p. 5.

[12] Ibid., p.5.

[13] “Only 5 out of 36 Municipalities in Istanbul Have Shelter”, https://www.haberturk.com/yasam/haber/1417854-istanbulda-36-belediyeden-sadece-5inde-siginma-evi-bulunuyor/5 (Accessed date: 01.09.2019).

[14] “Our Mission and Vision”, https://ailevecalisma.gov.tr/ksgm/teskilat-yapisi/misyon-ve-vizyon/ (Access date: 01.09.2019).

[15] “Hello 183”, https://alo183.ailevecalisma.gov.tr/alo-183 , (Access date: 01.09.2019).

[16] “Completed Projects of the General Directorate on the Status of Women”, https://ailevecalisma.gov.tr/KSGM/PDF/ksgb_tamamlanan_projeler_ekim_2018.pdf (Access date: 03.09.2019).

[17] Ibid.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Ibid, Duygu Erseçen and Zehra Tosun, p. 31.

[23] Ibid., p. 32.

[24] “What Can I Do?”, http://www.evicisiddet.adalet.gov.tr/Ne_Yapabilirim.html (Access date: 03.09.2019).

[25] Ibid, Duygu Erseçen and Zehra Tosun, p. 45.

[26] Ceyda Alpago, “Violence Against Women and the Case of Women’s Shelters”, Master Thesis, Istanbul Technical University, 2006, p. 51.

[27] Ibid., p. 55-56.

[28] “Women’s Rights Center: Promotion and Purpose”, https://www.bursabarosu.org.tr/tr/merkezler-kadin-haklari-merkezi-tanitim-ve-amac.html (Access date: 04.09.2019) .

[29] “Purple Roof 2018 Annual Report”, https://www.morcati.org.tr/tr/neler-yapiyoruz/faaliyet-raporlari/496-mor-cati-2018-yili-faaliyet-raporu (Access date : 02.09.2019).

[30] “About Us”, http://kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/hakkimizda(Access date: 01.09.2019).

[31] Ibid.

 

”Understanding the importance of work; For being a voice by addressing the problem that exists within the framework of the principle of impartiality and the effort they gave in the TESAD Policy Draft on “Violence against Women”, where the most human rights violations are experienced in the world, with their determination to work, who managed to be the voice of those who could not make their voices heard; We thank Sinan Karaoğlu, Bekir Aydeniz, Mert İsmail Özkan, Feyza İnce, Ayşina Arslan, Merve Koç, Tansu Okçu, Şeyma Yeşilyurt, Berk Gökçen, Hüseyin Şimşek, Uğur Pamukel and Burak Ayaz.”

Source: TESAD