Brexit
Ben Stansall, AFP

Brexit Deadlock: European Union vs Boris Johnson

Abstract

Brexit is a term which means that the United Kingdom decided to leave EU in 2016.  During this period, two Prime Ministers  were David Cameron and Theresa May  resigned and many important ministers to. Cameron put the country into a referendum, considering his party’s vote, and resigned when he did not get results, he expected. After his resign, Thersa May became Prime Minister and she began negotiations with EU about Brexit. Although,she tried to enact treaty The Parliament did not accept any opsitions. After the rejection of the Brexit agreement three times, May could not withstand pressures within the party and  was forced to resign and now Boris Johnson is a new Prime Minister. Previous developments related to Brexit are discussed in the former article. This article is about the especially Brexit process Boris Johnson and his ideas about the Brexit and EU.

1.Who is Boris Johnson?

Boris Johnson had actively  joined politics in 2001 and had served as a Conservative party MP and mayor of London. During Theresa May’s period, he served in the cabinet and became Foreign Minister. Johnson, who are one of the defenders of ‘Hard Brexit’, he  resigned to protest May’s Brexit negotiations with the EU.  In his letter of resignation, he said that, Brexit means opportunity and hope, but  this dream is dead.[1]After May’s resignation, Johnson was a candidate for  both party leadership and Prime Minister. As a result of election, he defeated Jeremy Hunt with 92,153 votes against 46,656 votes.

2.Brexit

2.1.Brexit and Boris Johnson

The United Kingdom was expected to implement its decision to leave the EU in the 2016 referendum on 29 March, but Brexit was postponed to 31 October after parliament rejected the Brexit agreement.[2] Following election to the leadership of the ruling Conservative Party in the UK and Prime Minister Johnson, Finance Minister P. Hammond, International Development Minister Rary Stewart, Justice Minister David Gauke and Cabinet office Minister David Lidington said they resigned from their cabinet posts.[3]He has to face many problems about this process. As a Prime Minister Johnson at his first speech said that,

A time limit is not enough. If an agreement is to be reached it must be clearly understood that the way to the deal goes by way of the abolition of the backstop. For our part we are ready to negotiate in good faith an alternative, with provisions to ensure that the Irish border issues are dealt with where they should always have been: in the negotiations on the future agreement between the UK and the EU.[4]

“Backstop” is essentially an emergency mechanism. Regardless of the outcome of the free trade agreement between the EU and the UK after the Brexit, part of the United Kingdom aims to ensure that there is no physical boundary between Northern Ireland and the EU member Republic of Ireland. The 1998 Good Friday Agreement, which put an end to the conflict on the island of Ireland, envisages the involvement of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in a common economic market; it provided free living, circulation and work on both sides of the border. At that time, the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland were members of the EU. However, after Brexit, the agreement between the UK and the EU stipulates that any party cannot unilaterally end the process. Opponents of the agreement in the UK also stress that this means that customs cannot be controlled throughout the UK.[5]

Johnson has said the Irish backstop, an insurance policy designed to prevent the return of a hard border between EU-member Ireland and the British province of Northern Ireland by provisionally keeping the UK in a customs union with the EU, must be removed from any Brexit deal.[6] At this time, nobody knows that what will happen Irish border problem if the UK have to leave the EU without an agreement.

Johnson wants to make new agreement with EU, but EU do not accept any negotiations about Brexit. Ursula von der Leyen,  who is a Head of EU Commission, said that if there is a valid reason, the process may be postponed but there is no new negotiation about treaty.  Considering this, government begins to prepare ‘no-deal Brexit’. What happens if you do not agree with Brexit? Johnson is stable to exit EU on 31 October and UK will be  ready for no-deal.  If the United Kingdom leaves the European Union without an agreement, there will be no opportunity in trade agreements. Commercial activities between the UK and  other memberships of EU will continue within the framework of World Trade Organizations. On the other hand, people will have problems on an individual basis. Areas related to residence permits, travel rights or health insurance for EU citizens and UK citizens remain unclear.

However, it is doubtful that the United Kingdom, which is composed of a politically unified structure, will continue to do so. Scotland choosed to remain in a referendum which was remain or leave to the UK. Because they would not be able to benefit from the benefits of the EU if they left the UK. Thus, in the Brexit referendum, Scotland remained  EU member state with the highest number of votes in all kingdom. After, Boris Johnson became PM, he met Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon in Edinburgh. Sturgeon has said Johnson’s Brexit plans would hurt the economy in Scotland, which voted to remain in the EU in 2016, and has warned she will continue preparations for a second independence referendum in Scotland.[7] No longer, UK will not provide opportunity to Scotland because of Brexit.

In addition, the political sphere, Boris Johnson lost his first election as Prime Minister. Boris Johnson defeated mid-term elections in Brecon and Radnorshire at Wales on August 2. In the UK, the Liberal Democratic Party won the midterm election for the only MP in the Conservative Party-controlled region, which weakened Prime Minister Boris Johnson’s hand in parliament.[8] As a result of the elections held in 2017, the Conservative Party lost the majority by itself and managed to form a minority government with the support of the Democratic Union Party. With the victory of the Liberal Democratic party, the new situation in the House of Commons became 320 to 319, and the Conservative party is only superior by one magrin so, Boris Johnson will have to convince everyone on his side. After won elections Jane Dodds said that,

“My very first act as your MP (member of Parliament) when I arrive in Westminster will be to find Mr. Boris Johnson, wherever he’s hiding, and tell him loud and clear, ‘Stop playing with the future of our communities and rule out a no-deal Brexit now.[9]

The news came from the United States to relax the hand of England. After the Brexit decision it would always be next to Britain and it would give all kinds of support to the US, which declared all the time, announced a statement again. US Secretary of State Pompeo and British Secretary of State Raab met in Washington. According to the press, Pompeo said that the US would be ready to sign a new free trade agreement with the UK after Brexit. After expressing their respect for Brexit’s decision, he stressed that the support given to England will be increased. According to British Foreign Minister Raab, the EU will be responsible for the non-negotiating Brexit, which does not agree with a new agreement.

2.2.Brexit and European Union

EU announced most of time what they thought about Brexit. The EU accepted  treaty whose  negotiations was made with Theresa May as a PM. EU Commission spokeswoman Annika Breidhardt said that,  Jean-Claude Juncker who was a head of EU Commission talked to Johnson and EU is willing to clarify Brexit conditions with  the UK side without new-deal.

In fact, the EU side will also was  affected from Brexit.  Immanuel Macron who is president of France wants to improve EU because of some deficiencies. EU’ members provide stability within EU and  prevent from leaving membership in other countries.

Conclusion

Process of Brexit is a very hard both sides the UK and EU. Each others lose some opportunities. Side of the UK  had to change its significant political figures and will have to face many problems about political,economical etc. Scotland made a new referandum to exit Kingdom.  On the other hand, pound is depreciating against dolar almost %3.5. All of this shows that England has entered a difficult process. The new prime minister, Boris Johnson, will play a key role in the process.If the no-deal Brexit occurs, could the UK economy be more vulnerable in the future? The Northern Ireland border remains a major problem. Some argue that the backstop method, which foresees Northern Ireland to act in EU rules for a while, will completely separate Britain and Northern Ireland and they opposed to this. The EU side is concerned that Brexit will set a precedent for other countries and will leave the union in the other countries. In some countries, studies such as Frexit etc. are in place and the EU sees the need for revision within itself. Nevertheless, it is an opportunity to show that it is not easy to leave the union and that there will be losses for that country. Throughout its history, the United Kingdom has had difficulty in fully aligning with the EU and has not neglected to take different decisions from the EU. The fact that the UK did not enter the Eurozone zone and using the pound is a proof of this. The UK  wanted to retain the rights of national sovereignty.  It is still unclear what the UK, which will now leave the union with the Brexit, or how the EU will act without the UK.

 


İnternet Kaynakları

BBC, Brexit Oylaması: İngiltere Parlamentosu Başbakan May’in AB ile vardığı anlaşmayı reddetti E.T. 10.08.2019

CNN, Boris Johnson’s Conservative Party suffers UK by-election defeat, Jessie Yeung E.T.07.08.2019

Ntv Haber, İngiltere’nin Yeni Başbakanı Boris Johnson Oldu E.T.29.07.2019

Habertürk, İngiltere Başbakanı Boris Johnson’dan Brexit Mesajı E.T.29.07.2019

The Guradian News, Boris Johnson’s first Commons speech as PM: what is he promising E.T.29.07.2019

Reuters, Assuming EU will not budge, Britain ramps up preparations for no-deal Brexit E.T.02.08.2019

Reuters, PM Johnson booed by some people as he meets Scotland’s Sturgeon  E.T.02.08.2019

Ntv Haber, İngiltere’de Boris Johnson’a Ara Seçim Darbesi E.T.07.08.2019

[1] İngiltere’nin Yeni Başbakanı Boris Johnson Oldu. https://www.ntv.com.tr/dunya/ingilterenin-yeni-basbakani-boris-johnson-oldu,l2QnOqJnqEuXIpSv38w3qw (E.T.29.07.2019)

[2] İngiltere Başbakanı Boris Johnson’dan Brexit Mesajı https://www.haberturk.com/ingiltere-basbakani-boris-johnson-dan-brexit-mesaji-2507520 (E.T.29.07.2019)

[3] a.g.e.

[4]  Boris Johnson’s first Commons speech as PM: what is he promising https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2019/jul/25/boris-johnson-first-speech-as-pm-what-is-he-promising (E.T.29.07.2019)

[5] Brexit Oylaması: İngiltere Parlamentosu Başbakan May’in AB ile vardığı anlaşmayı reddetti https://www.bbc.com/turkce/haberler-dunya-46880572  (E.T.10.08.2019)

[6] Assuming EU will not budge, Britain ramps up preparations for no-deal Brexit https://www.reuters.com/article/us-britain-eu-idUSKCN1UN08Q (E.T. 02.08.2019)

[7] PM Johnson booed by some people as he meets Scotland’s Sturgeon https://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-britain-eu-johnson-booed/pm-johnson-booed-by-some-people-as-he-meets-scotlands-sturgeon-idUKKCN1UO1RH (E.T. 02 .08. 2019)

[8] İngiltere’de Boris Johnson’a Ara Seçim Darbesi https://www.ntv.com.tr/dunya/ingilterede-boris-johnsona-ara-secim-darbesi,ofjn031xq0iIAbIl6RHi3g (E.T.07.08.2019)

[9] Boris Johnson’s Conservative Party suffers UK by-election defeat, Jessie Yeung https://edition.cnn.com/2019/08/02/uk/uk-election-lib-dems-intl/index.html (E.T. 07.08.2019)