human

Artificial Intelligence and International System

Introduction

Dramatic changes affect every single stage of human. So many things have changed rapidly in human history until Industrial Revolution. States have also keep up with these alteration and they have found to survive in international system. This mini work focuses on place of Artificial Intelligence in human lives and then shows Artificial Intelligence on state level.

1. Place of Artificial Intelligence in Our Lives

Developments until Industrial Revolution, our lives have changed dramatically and this change has been emerged very fast as soon as never seen in history. Firstly each individuals lives, then society after that states’ lives. After Industrial Revolution, positions of people had changed from villagers to proletarians and new classes in society had been borned such as workers, capitalists etc. The struggle of power between them created new structure in the society and new nation state had been borned with a lot of events like wars, riots, ideas. Each new-coming technology added new things our lives. Especially in Cold War Era, technologic race affected the international system. Human being went to space and walked on the moon, they were good things but also there are many bad things about development of the tech such as atomic bomb, nuclear weapons and implementations are very dangerous things for us.

The nuclear race determined the international systems in Cold War Era. Anymore, wars became more dangerous because of mutually assured destruction, fortunately no any hot conflicts between superpowers. Therefore system was more stable than today’s. Because of breaking down the Cold War balance, today’s international system appears more chaotic, anarchic. And it becomes difficult to understand and interpret the system. At the same time, development of the tech is going on rapidly and states use this vehicles in many scopes. For example; Advances in artificial intelligence (AI) hold out the prospect of a fundamental change in this arrangement: the idea  of a non-human entity having specific agency could create radical change in our understanding of politics at the widest levels.[1] The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.[2] We use the AI every single day. We take suggestion from the AI by finding a way, translating, searching a cheap ticket, shopping, learning how many steps we have, understanding where we are. [3] The AI is always our near in our mobile phones which cannot fallen down from our hands. The AIs, which take a strategic decisions, with integration of software and special information present such explanation and suggestion to people, predict future events based on historical datas, recognize human language,  have used  our works basically nowadays.[4] But this mini work focus on AI and international system.

2. AI in International System

The main questions are there; Can AI replace the human-beings and can make issues of foreign policy instead of human? Can robots join decision making process?

We already know that states use the AI when they take a decision or their implementation. Because computers can calculate equations which have multi unknow. With the correct software, a machine can recognize patterns in data much more quickly and accurately than any human can. [5]It is enough to know actors’ position, power and salience by using any algorithm such as KAPSARC[6] or incidepro.[7] These algorithms can predict future about foreign policy. China is becoming a global factory for artificial intelligence (AI). The country has proposed becoming a world leader in this field by 2030. With the introduction of robots and machine learning into production processes, China will be able to advance in the global value chain. [8]According to a new of South China Morning Post, several prototypes of a diplomatic system using artificial intelligence are under development in China, according to researchers involved or familiar with the projects. One early-stage machine, built by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is already being used by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The researchers said the AI “policymaker” was a strategic decision support system, with experts stressing that it will be humans who will make any final decision. The system studies the strategy of international politics by drawing on a large amount of data, which can contain information varying from cocktail-party gossip to images taken by spy satellites.[9]  Of course the AI is an instrument to use but it cannot still take a vital role in decision making process but it can take in military part.

States and private sectors also have used the AI tech in military vehicles. Soldier Systems Daily has produced wearable weapons for US army.[10]  Greater use will be made of artificial intelligence and other new technologies to combat emerging global threats, the defence secretary of UK has said.[11] All those developments in international systems are concerned. The AI will become more dangerous instrument likes nuclear would be.  It should be a legal dimension. Yes the AI techs is an opportunity for the states but in my opinion, it should be such limit because it creates unbalanced between states and it can be disaster in a war time. A kind of legal basis should require by using this mechanism. Therefore states should get together and create such a consensus about using AI in military.

The other dimension is a kind of dystopia. It can be funny for a lot of people but the curiosity question is this; Do robots replace people? I think, they do not in the near future, it is only subject of science fiction films. But we should consider all the time. Robots may be our assistance, friend or something; not be anymore.

Conclusion

Advanced technology overlaps our daily life but also internationally scope.  States use the AI to achieve their goals and there is no limitation until today because no consequences yet.  AI is and opportunity in order to create a policy but it can be disadvantage for non-using AI country in military in the future.

 


RESOURCES

M. L. Cummings, Heather M. Roff, Kenneth Cukier, Jacob Parakilas and Hannah Bryce, Artificial Intelligence and International Affairs, Chatham House Report, 2018.

Oxford Dictionary, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/artificial_intelligence access: December 21, 2018.

Dünya, Uluslararası Refahın Kaynağı Yapay Zeka Olabilir Mi?, Didem Eryar Ünlü, August 6 2018, https://www.dunya.com/tekno-trend/uluslararasi-refahin-anahtari-yapay-zeka-olabilir-mi-haberi-424682 access: December 21, 2018.

Endüstri 4.0, Yapay Zeka Ülkeyi Yönetebilir mi?, Hakan Kahraman, https://www.endustri40.com/yapay-zeka-ulke-yonetebilir-mi/ Access: December 21, 2018.

Sputnik, World Factory 2.0: Will China Become Global Artificial Intelligence Trainer?, October 10 ,2018, https://sputniknews.com/science/201810101068737880-china-artificial-intelligence/ Access: December 21, 2018.

South China Morning Post, Artificial intelligence, immune to fear or favour, is helping to make China’s foreign policy, July 30, 2018, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2157223/artificial-intelligence-immune-fear-or-favour-helping-make-chinas, Access: December 21, 2018.

BBC, UK pledges greater use of Artificial Intelligence to repel military threats,  December 18 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-46606548 Access: December 21, 2018.

FOOTNOTES

[1]M. L. Cummings, Heather M. Roff, Kenneth Cukier, Jacob Parakilas and Hannah Bryce, Artificial Intelligence and International Affairs, Chatham House Report, 2018 p. iv.

[2] Oxford Dictionary, https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/artificial_intelligence access: December 21, 2018.

[3] Dünya, Uluslararası Refahın Kaynağı Yapay Zeka Olabilir Mi?, Didem Eryar Ünlü, 06 Ağustos 2018, https://www.dunya.com/tekno-trend/uluslararasi-refahin-anahtari-yapay-zeka-olabilir-mi-haberi-424682 access: December 21, 2018.

[4] Endüstri 4.0, Yapay Zeka Ülkeyi Yönetebilir mi?, Hakan Kahraman, https://www.endustri40.com/yapay-zeka-ulke-yonetebilir-mi/ Access: December 21, 2018

[5] M. L. Cummings, Heather M. Roff, Kenneth Cukier, Jacob Parakilas and Hannah Bryce, Artificial Intelligence and International Affairs, Chatham House Report, 2018, p. 1.

[6] vide:King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center (KAPSARC),  https://www.kapsarc.org/

[7] vide: Predictioneers Game, http://www.incidepro.com/

[8] Sputnik, World Factory 2.0: Will China Become Global Artificial Intelligence Trainer?, 10.10.2018, https://sputniknews.com/science/201810101068737880-china-artificial-intelligence/ Access: December 21, 2018.

[9] South China Morning Post, Artificial intelligence, immune to fear or favour, is helping to make China’s foreign policy, 30 July, 2018, https://www.scmp.com/news/china/society/article/2157223/artificial-intelligence-immune-fear-or-favour-helping-make-chinas, Access: December 21, 2018.

[10] vide: Soldier Systems Daily, Mawashi – UPRISE Tactical Exoskeleton,  http://soldiersystems.net/2017/07/24/mawashi-uprise-tactical-exoskeleton/  Access: December 21, 2018.

[11] BBC, UK pledges greater use of Artificial Intelligence to repel military threats, 18 December 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-46606548 Access: December 21, 2018.